Literature is the best criticism of life and it is the study of society. Literature is a direct reflection of life and it reflects what is happening in the society. It portrays the real picture of changes occurring in the society in different ways. These changes may be the social, political religious and scientific changes. Literature also illustrates the moral and legal norms, culture and civilizations, ideas and beliefs of the society. Literature takes its themes from the very changes occurring in the society and from which it come out. Society is depicting though the different genres of literature such, as poetry, drama, novel etc. so Literature is a mirror of society because it portrays the real image of society. Every writer has a little influence of society in which he has bought up. A literary writer has very close relation with his society and very attuned to the changes and they take innovation from their own society and transfer their imagination, observation, revelation, affections and perception into their text. Thus literature and society are interlinked and writers both consciously and unconsciously assimilate the very important link in their texts.

2.3.1 Karl Marx Criticism
By literary theory, Karl Marx has also contributed to the literature. According to Karl Marx the work which is written by different writers is not due to by some godly or mythical revelation rather these writers get persuaded by their instantaneous surrounding which is the current composition and prevailing economic system of the society, social order of the classes, moral and legal norms of the individuals and from the government institutions in society.
Marxist criticism on literature is not simply a theory or piece of literature. It is also not concerned with literary text which is related to the lower class. The main objective of this theory is to explain the work of art and literature more thoroughly and more perfectly with fully attention to its form and style. But from those style and form it would suggest that it is a product and representation of society.
Literary Conflict

2.3.2 Novel
Novel is the important genre of English art and literature which is the main medium for depicting and illustrating the issue of class conflict. In English literature this genre has appear in the beginning of 18th century with the birth of middle class in the society. In the eighteen century a new class was emerged because of industrialization and economic growth in the Europe. The new class was middle class and the novel was being written to get acclaimed from this new class or middle class. In fact it portrays and describes the entire society. Various scholars and writers deal with these experiences of life in their own way.
The Oxford Dictionary defines novel as “a fictions prose narrative of book length, typically representing character and action with some degree of realism.” The Literary J.A Cuddon states that Novel is not only a common attribute but it also possesses many other characteristics and most important distinguished characteristic is its illustration of actual life circumstances and immediate society. Through different characters, different settings, and various themes it is a best medium to illustrate the contemporary society.
Since its beginning in eighteenth century, Class conflict on the basis of status, power, economic incongruity and many others factors is being shown in the novel. The novel seem to be a real depiction of the society by showing the significance of financial and social status in a community and socio- economic condition and the changing position of the characters from one to another status. Due to this illustration of the society, a novel can be easily understood with respect to the relation with immediate environment, the financial and social status, the socio-economic conditions, the current and influential ideas and beliefs, and the moral and legal norms


English Novels in 19th Century

Theme of class conflict and class division goes beside one another with the evolution of the novel in 19th century Victorian society. The 19th century is distinguished by a great movement, the industrialization that led to the popularity of material possessions in the society. Because of industrialization a new class, a middle class has emerged in the society and members of society rejects the conventional values and moral and legal norms. Industrialization was an influential economic force of the Victorian society that influenced the very status of the various classes in the society. The 19th century is distinguished by the literary work Jane Austen (1775-1817), Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), Emily Bronte (1818-1848), and Charles Dickens (1812-1870). Jane Austen
Early 19th century was dominated by Jane Austen (1775-1817), an English great Novelist best known primarily for her six main novels. Six major novels by Jane Austen are, Sense and Sensibility (1811), Emma (1815), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Persuasion (18181), Mansfield Park (1814) and Northerner Abbey. Themes and subject of these entire novels are class conflict and class consciousness in the society. Jane Austen portrays the social and moral picture of the contemporary society in her novels.
The story of Pride and Prejudice (1813) is a truly depiction of stratified system of landed gentry society. In this type of society every character are aware of their moral values and social standing that develops prejudices toward each other. The characters belonging to upper class such as Darcy, Bingley and Catharine Debourgh have the consciousness of noble status and high birth makes them proud and arrogant. Characters belonging to middle class suffer from the arrogance of upper class and develop prejudice against them.
jane austen Emily Bronte
Emily Bronte was a renowned English writer and poet of the 19th century. She was born in 1818 and died 1848. Withering Heights which is published in 1847 is the only one novel written by her and she got a highly acclaimed by this novel. Heath cliff is a major character of the novel. Hindly is another character in the novel torturing Heath cliff because of his lower status and because he belongs to gypsy. Emily Bronte further portrayals the persecution of lower class when Catherine prefer Linton, who belongs to upper class, on Heat Cliff because Heat cliff belongs to lower class. This depicts that members of the society have much influence by the social norms and culture in a social stratifies society. The conflict exists between the Heat cliff and Miss Catherine is just because they belong to different social classes. Their status has a great influence on their personal lives.
emily.jpg Charles Dickens
In the middle of 19th century Charles John Huffman Dickens came forward. He was a great social critic. He is a prominent writer and regarded one of the greatest novelists of the Victorian period. Over the course of his career of writing, he created some great classic novels. Oliver Twist and A Tale of Two Cities are the famous novels. Great Expectations is another novel in which he criticizes the contemporary society. Charles Dickens illustrated the real and true picture of prevalent social ideas and beliefs, moral and legal norms, social values and problems of prevailing Victorian society and shows that how wealth and materialistic approach make people reactive of their class status. Louis James argues about the works of Charles Dickens as regarded Charles Dickens is one of the central and important figures of English social Novelists. Because he usually written about his contemporary Victorian society. He portrays the norms and beliefs of his era. He is also written about the class conflict which is exists in the society.
charles Fyodor Dostoevsky
Russian Society has also the same predicament and irritant problem of Class difference and class conflict. Russian Writer and novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky Wrote about this drag pain society where the dilemma is as same as other countries are bearing it. And it can be minimize in one liner story that this curse is in instinct of man. Native problems are that a man has to face it with extraction and it has the continuity with time lasts. In his novel Crime and Punishment, Fyodor Dostoevsky extracts his grief in the story that the emergence of Class conflict makes one’s life Suffer. He also shows that the low stature of Russian life made man hollow inward as well as outward. The novel intrigues the rotten correspondence between the elite and lower classes. It also illustrates the values, ethics, manners and good terms also nipped under the Russian materialistic power of High class. This made their society beaten and worthless and this affinity kinship alliance of power made the poor the poorest of 19th century in Russia.
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Analysis of the movie “Brave Heart”

Randall Wallace’s movie “Brave-heart” is one of the finest Randall’s movies. In this movie he has very finely shown the history of Scotland. By studying and watching this movie we completely become aware of the situations of Scottish people of that time. In ancient times king was the head of the state (in England the case is the same) and the whole power was in his hand. He was having the sole authority to do whatever he wanted. People were suffering but there was no one to raise question against the tyranny of the king. Scottish people suffered for a very long time through the hands of English people. Randall Wallace has shown a complete picture of the history through this movie. He has very intelligently shown the relationship between the government and the subjects. Randall Wallace has shown that how wars come and what sacrifices are made to get freedom. People do whatever the time demands but they want to get freedom. In the ancient times the king was so brutal that he would directly slaughtered those who rebel or who did not become agree with the rules of the land. The rules were in favor of English people and the Scottish were having no rights. For English soldiers king was the only king and for Scottish all the English were kings. They were not feeling shame nor fear and were doing every inhuman act with Scottish people.
Is not it shameful that someone took your bride for the first night and then also announce it that is his noble right that he will bless this marriage by taking the bride on her first night to his own bed. Is king like this? Is it a natural law? The king is the one to whom people carry their problems and he solves it. He is head court of justice. But here the case was opposite. King himself was creating problems. His rule was just like Satan. If someone would dare not to follow this then he or she would definitely slaughter.
Female gender is a thing of respect. It’s a mother, a sister, and a daughter not only a thing of pleasure. But the English king was treating Scottish women as it were his own and he was having the sole right to took them to his bed.
In this movie it has been shown that how people struggle for their freedom. Scottish were bearing the cruelty and brutality of English people and king but when they crossed their extreme limit by slaughtering a young girl (heroine of the movie named Moorne) just because she was not agree with English magistrate to enjoy with him her physical parts. The situations were very pathetic and extremely shameful. The English soldiers were having the complete right over Scottish women. They would start publicly to enjoy with Scottish women and especially with young beautiful girls. They had not feared of anyone because they had completely subjugated Scottish people.
Randall Wallace has shown that no one is slave or belongs to low class by nature. He would not suffer the whole life if he did not will. But to raise a voice against this it needs much passion. Someone would mentally and physically prepare for every loss. Many hurdles and difficulties will come in his way but if he will be enough strong and steadfast on his ideas, he will definitely achieve his goal.
Struggle for freedom is finely shown in a very good scene by Randall Wallace. In the war when Scottish see that English are far more in number than them, some of them want to go back and not to fight with English. But William Wallace the hero of the movie has the best courage inside his heart. He knows how it feels when someone kills your young bride. William and Moorne had married secretly. William was aware that if he will marry publicly, king will take his bride. He tells Scottish people that if you people want to go back… go back but its not a solution of the problem. By going back you people will escape for today but not for tomorrow and then. You people are right that today you people would be safe but you will be suffer for this through your whole life. One day escapism did not mean escapism for whole life. Face it, fight, then you will be free. If you will not fight, English will think you cowards and then they will demand more than this. You are free and fight like free men. They will take our lives but they cannot take our freedom. We will get freedom on the basis of every cost.
He goes to meet English king. By looking at Scottish army English king makes fun of William that by having this army you will be defeated definitely. William Wallace tells him that he has an offer for him that before going back English king will come, bow on his knees and touch the horse feet. English king laughs that in two century you people did not get freedom then how you will get it today. William tells him “I am not finished yet”. I will fight and will freedom. William best knows that his army is much less than English army but he wants to fight. For every fight courage is must than power.
Randall Wallace, through the character of William Wallace shows before us that how people strive for freedom. William Wallace is a true patriot towards his nation. He wants to bring out his nation from that chaos where there is no peace, no love and no protection. He tells them that you are free men. Don’t be scare of death. We must have to sacrifice for freedom. Nothing is possible.
In short every dialogue and scene shows the struggle for freedom of Scottish people. William Wallace is best showing struggle for freedom among all. He sacrifices his life for the sake of his nation. Otherwise, he best knows that his father and brother were killed when he was a child. His wife was also killed. But he fights for the betterment of his nation. There was nothing left with him but fights till his death. He might protect his life by repenting but he did not do it. It all was just for his nation’s sake.
The end of this movie is very good and appreciable. The director has finely ended the movie by putting the last word of the movie as “freedom”. One can truly claim that its real struggle for freedom. The writer creates good reasons for the upcoming scene and actions. Those who watch the movie all also become confused what William Wallace will do in this situation, when on one side there is his life and on the second there is hope of his nation.
From which courage and confidence and with smiling face he accepts death rather than repent… it must be appreciable by everyone and even by haters. English also become greatly surprised he call of freedom rather than repent.
He was the real hero of his people and he was aware that now everything is in his hand, otherwise he would simply repent and saved his life. But he thought of the whole nation rather than only himself. Randall Wallace has finely depicted the true struggle for freedom in this movie. The way William Wallace talks, he struggles and infuse courage in his nation, shows that he is best patriot.


What is freedom? Different people have defined it in different ways. It can be defined from various points and societies and as per diverse societies it differs starting with one culture then onto the next. A few people have characterized it as regular right of human beings. Everybody needs to be free from others and needs to carry on with an autonomous life. Freedom can be defined as it’s the choice to do whatever one wants to do, have whatever he desires and have the privilege to choose the religion in which he actually believes, without hurting or disregarding the needs of other individuals.
What precisely freedom is? Can we taste it, see it, or touch it? The answer to this Question is “no”. However, in the event that we start to mirror a bit, freedom can be felt, if not by our hands then by our heart. The question to this answer then remains how to clarify what freedom is?
One way to deal with run over at freedom is to look at the refinement amongst kids and adults. Kids get joy from a specific mixture of freedom that adults don’t. The principle reason is that adults know and can comprehend the specific guidelines of society while the youngster does not. Freedom can’t be taken from the natives in a popularity based society, for example, our own. Be that as it may, it appears exercises can keep pace and over-directed to the point that person feel intrude upon. As the world’s populations develop, the confinements we set on individuals’ activities develop relatively. Be that as it may, at what position will we portray the line and recover our common ideal to freedom? The body can surely feel the locks and chains that advanced life has forced. Some time ago people were not all that managed. The tyke will at present feel the delight of getting the main fish or investigating a secure wild. It will be pitiful for them when they too discover that life is not as free as they think it ought to be.
How might we live free? From my perspective, we can carry on with an upbeat and free life by regarding others right. In the event that everybody will be mindful about the civil liberties of others we can carry on with a glad and free life. We can’t disregard the privileges of others of other individuals with whom we live in the general public. We can’t carry on with an existence as per our standards and needs in light of the fact that if everybody will be in need of finishing his or her own particular desire, he will overlook the rights of others and in such a course there will be an aggravation in the public eye. Rich individuals will be free and glad and poor groups will be in hopeless circumstance. With the expectation of complimentary life we should contemplate other individual rights.
Similarly, if one has no freedom, that individual will not consider itself a conscious individual. The thought behind freedom is to be well mannered and valuable to our general public. Freedom is central to everybody. At the point when freedom is certain, I can envision unreservedly, go where I wish to go, express my assessment without fear from other individuals who dislike my sentiment. Freedom of assessment is among the most fundamental branches of freedom. In a few social orders where freedom of sentiment is not ensured by the higher power, the motivation and invention of psyche is killed and covered. Somebody once said, freedom of assessment will never bring about sharpness among individuals in the event that they regard each other. As I specified some time recently, freedom is not a flat out right, and there are an excessive number of requirements on it. Above all else the general public rights checking national security which is extremely huge: security is as vital as freedom. Also freedom of belief, to have faith in what you believe and chose your respectable religion. We likewise have the privilege to build up our own places where we can do our religious activities.
Historically, there has been a conspicuous verification that freedom is distinctive to human and that he will battle the length of he lives to reestablish his natural appropriate to be a liberated individual. The western culture guaranteed freedom for its own subjects and possessed poor countries and denied their groups from their social liberties, including freedom. To reestablish freedom these countries battled for quite a while without rest. Kidnapping of rights is not polite human activity. Since God gave us opportunity for nothing. We should do our level best keep and keep up this fundamental right. To reject a person or to render justice from him there are numerous routes yet as indicated by numerous rationalists, among the most embarrassing approach to reject a human is to take away him from freedom. When one goes to prison, he is detracted from freedom, thus he is enduring, which is the indicate discipline. In the event that somebody has no freedom it implies that he has no life, he has no privilege. He can’t do anything without freedom. Without freedom he will feel himself like in enclosure. A winged creature which is free from the grip of the seeker can go all over the place, it can fly all over. Yet, as the feathered creature comes in the care of the seeker, its life stop. The fowl can’t do anything which it needs, inside an enclosure. To carry on with a cheerful life individual need an appropriate place where he or she could would everything which like to do, in the light of the govern of land. Lacking freedom educates the human lesson; he will make utilization of it. Freedom can’t be felt right, unless one feels absence of freedom, and after that he will truly acknowledge from his deep.
Freedom is not outright. Freedom must be restricted. We can’t simply do everything which we like or need to do. We can’t slaughter somebody, deny him from his rights, carry medicates or damage the laws and guidelines for freedom purpose. There ought to be regard and we need to remember the privileges of other individuals with whom we live.
Similarly, if we give a look at the historical backdrop of countries, they have battled wars for their freedom. In old times there was a conviction of “might is right”. The strong nations were making subordinate the poor ones and they were implying their powers on them and the poor nations were enduring. The capable had made the minorities subordinate. They were acting with them as they wished. Poor people group were not permitted to do anything by any means. The poor countries went about as the powerful group guided them. The poor were having no business of their own. Poor people groups were carrying on with an existence nothing else except for simply like slaves. Their life was in the full control of the rich group. On the off chance that the rich group even executed a man, there was nobody to inquire. They were getting advantage of poor people. In the event that a powerful group individual preferred a young lady of the poor one, he was having the soul power to brought her and enjoy with her during the night in his bed. Poor people group was not capable even just to inquire as to why they are doing so. Power was in the hand of the rich group and the poor had no share to it. The poor were longing only for an ordinary life.
Without freedom a man can’t do anything on the grounds that each time he feels himself in limitations. There was a terrible impact of rich group on the poor’s brain. Around then it was exceptionally troublesome and even unimaginable for the poor group to request their own particular rights. From their introduction to the world the poor group brains were prepared in a manner that they have no rights and they are slaves of rich group. They will carry on with an existence under the standards and laws made by the rich group. What’s more, if there should arise an occurrence of infringement they should be rebuffed and even would be executed, in light of the fact that the capable group has the spirit power to do whatever they need..
Each individual of the universe stays looking for his own particular being. He needs to be free from a wide range of external strengths. He needs freedom furthermore hunt to dispose of a wide range of confinements around him. He generally looks for freedom. That type of freedom makes him sufficiently solid to confront the whole obstruction which comes in his direction. He proceeds with the battle and one day he gets accomplishment in his objective. In the event that we experience the historical backdrop of “Freedom” we come to realize that “freedom” is gotten from a German word “Friede” which implies peace. It implies that wherever on the planet if there is freedom there will be peace. On the off chance that there will be no freedom, person will battle for it and in such a way there will be no peace. A man will battle for freedom till he didn’t get it.
On the off chance that we took freedom in wide sense we come to realize that there are many sorts of freedom. There is the right to speak freely, freedom of religion, freedom of thought and physical freedom and so forth. By physical freedom I mean, a man ought to be free from a wide range of limitations. He should be allowed to go where he needs, to eat what he needs and to wear what he loves. Nobody has the privilege to prohibit somebody lawfully from such sorts of exercises. Everybody has its own life and he should be free from outside confinements to carry on with his life as he himself needs. Everybody is permitted to carry out any occupation which he needs. He has likewise the privilege to leave or join the employment as indicated by his own will. He himself is liable of his activities and works. By economical freedom I imply that each man has the privilege of his own property possibly he needs to spare it or to spend it in 60 minutes. Nobody has any legitimate ideal to get some information about his own cash. He himself has picked up it and he has the sole ideal to spend it in a way he himself needs. Like political or conservative freedom the freedom of individual is of high significance. Society makes of numerous people. Each man is allowed to do any activity whether it is religious, instructive, administrative, physical or mental. A man ought to be mentally allowed to express and share his thoughts and musings. There is another kind of freedom which is national freedom. Through national freedom one can recognize himself to live with other individuals in the public arena. A man ought to be allowed to live in a land under the control of government which he himself chooses.
The historical backdrop of freedom begins from the Greek established age till today. On the off chance that we take a look at history, we perceive that there is no such other thought which is more powerful than freedom. For freedom man give up himself, bears sparing and physical misfortune, sheds blood yet dependably hunt and need freedom. He never needs to backtrack without picking up freedom. A man keeps battle for freedom from era to era. He should be sufficiently free to talk against wrong activity. A man needs a cheerful and typical life. It may be on the whole correct to state that if a man living in the public arena has no freedom, he doesn’t has anything at all with him. Without freedom nobody can do anything.
Human beings born free. The power of observation is gifted to them. They are most importantly other living animals and this is their regular appropriate with which they conceived. Everyone needs to carry on with his or her life autonomously. This sentiment autonomy flashes throughout one’s life a spirit of certainty which helps them more forward in their lives. The genuine triumph of life is the sentiment change and advance. Freedom implies doing of all that one needs, live openly and pick religion with no outer weight, without harming others. Freedom offers of what one need or goals. In a free society one can do everything. The historical backdrop of freedom begins from the Greek traditional age till today. In the event that we take a gander at history, we perceive that there is no such other thought which is more compelling than freedom.
By free society I didn’t imply that it ought to be allowed to do anything what one need. He needs to remember the privileges of different natives of the general public. He needs to play out his obligation and work in his own particular breaking point. He should not hurt other while doing his occupation.
In our society if we look at ourselves, we come to know that normally poor community is not allowed to do many things. They are in complete grasp of elite class. Sometimes success and intelligence lies in low and poor minds. This is not a natural law that a rich man will be intelligent and good and poor man will be cheap and dull. A rich man has all the facilities. He lives a comfortable life. He has many activities other than study or to do something for nation. He does not care about anything because there is everything available for him. He does not know what is going on in the society? What are the problems of society because he himself does not face them. In comparison to this poor man do struggle for his future and society because he knows and is aware of the problems of the society. He knows his position in society. He works hard for the betterment of his life. We know that poor community is the backbone of the society. They are the producers of the society. If freedom is denied then how the poor will do all this activities. We have to keep a balance in society. Everyone has his own rights. He must will struggle and fight for his rights.
In a good society there must be freedom of speech. Everyone whether he is poor or rich should be allowed to speak in favor or against of an action. If we do not have this freedom we won’t be able to repair ourselves and society. We will live a life like slaves in our own country. It means that our opinions and ideas will be of no value. I have heard a proverb which best suits with this idea “Listen to the talk and opinion of everyone present in a meeting. It might be possible that a poor and low minded man have the solution to a problem. He might have faced in his past the same problem”. In presence of this type of freedom, one can freely express his ideas and can give and share his opinion in many activities. It permits an individual to express and share his ideas through writing and speaking.
God has bestowed many of His blessings upon human beings. Freedom is one of them. The society where there is freedom would be the happy and successful. In presence of freedom, citizens do everything for their nation. In human’s mind peace is possible only if there is freedom. If freedom is denied, they will become victim of sense of inferiority. They will not do anything for the success of their nation and in such way most of the talent will be lost. Freedom does not mean that a person will be free of rules and regulation and do everything which he wishes to desire. Man is social animal. If he will be totally free, he will spread disturbance in society. He will do everything to fulfill his desires.
If we study the history of nations, we come to know that from the very start nations have been combating for freedom. They do everything: sacrifice their lives; ready for financial loss, blood shading etc but they want freedom. One of the most important example of imperialism is that of subcontinent. Two nations Hindus and Muslims were living under the complete grasp of Untied Kingdom. They were not allowed to do whatever they want. As the British directed them, they had to follow the order. Muslims were not happy in that situations because their way of life was completely change from the British. Muslims were in want of a separate nation where they could live their life according to the rules of Islam. They wanted a separate Islamic home land where they could perform all the activities of life. As it is the human nature that he wants to perform every activity of life according to his own will. Everyone knows himself better than other. Not only the British but Hindus were also against Muslims.
As the Muslims took start to get independence the Hindus and British made their lives very depressed. But the Muslims never went back. They continued the struggle for freedom. There was a great destruction, Muslims shed blood, sacrificed their lives, got economical loss but at the end they get rid from the cruelty of those nations. The other best example we can take is of Libya and Palestine. They are living under the control of others. They are suffering and passing through very hard situations but till now they are deprived of freedom. Freedom or to make a country under control was not only concerned with the past. In present time there are also some nations and some territories which are under control of others. We can take example of Kashmir. The people of Kashmir is in very disturb situation. People of Kashmir are fighting to get freedom. They are facing and passing through the same situations through which other nations have passed.
Nelson Mandela, the founding father of African nation, an anti-apartheid, political worker, worked hard to get freedom for the black majority from the white minority. Nelson Mandela spent a very long duration (27 years) of his life in jail but he did not stop his struggle. He never lost his struggle to get freedom. He struggled hard for freedom and whip out the deep rooted racial prejudice among the two major communities.
At those days, the black people were suffering racial prejudice from the white people. They were not allowed to speak in favor or against of government. They were in complete grasp of white people. Only on the basis of their color they were hatred. The white community was saying that they are so black that they must be hated. Their children were not allowed to speak, play or study in the same institution. There was a difference in law for black and white community. The white community was having the sole right to live their life according to their own wishes and the black were completely ignored. The white community even did not count them in humans. Although, they were the major community, still they were struggling hard to enter the high offices of the government. The racism was so deep that people rooted that the white people did not want to sit with them in a public place. In public transport, the black people were not allowed to sit in front seat and they were given the back seats.
Shortly, in every walk of life the black people suffered. They had no basic rights such as education, freedom of expression and right to vote etc. Nelson Mandela realized the grim situation of his people and started struggle for freedom throughout his life. Many hurdles came in his way but he never lost his courage and hope. He remained firm on his idea and position. And in the last he successfully brought out his race from the slavery of white people.
Braveheart is a 1995 war epic movie written by the American writer Randall Wallace and directed by Gibson. In this movie he has brought out before us the Scottish history and the struggle of people for their freedom. He has depicted in a very good way how Scottish people struggled to get freedom and get rid from the grasp of other. This movie earned him an Oscar recommendation because it a unique movie. He has also published his other screenplay such as Secretraiat, which is also one of his best movie.
The movie “Braveheart” has been made on the history of Scottish people how they start struggle for freedom. Scottish people were living a very hard life under the complete grasp of England. They were not allowed to do any activity of life in the way they want to do. William Wallace is the hero of this movie. He is the son of a common villager of Scotland. One day the English soldiers came to William’s village and killed all the villagers who were there and then hang them under the ceiling of room. William was not at home at that time. When the other villagers return to village from their works, they saw and found the village calm and destructed. William’s friends were also killed. This situation left a very bad impact on William’s life. William Wallace was ready and enthusiastic to do many things but he was a child of ten year and was not allowed by his elders to do anything. After some days his father was also killed by English soldiers. William Wallace was left all alone in the home.
After some days William’s uncle came and took him along with him. He was very sad by leaving his village in which he had spent the golden time of his life: his childhood. Throughout his childhood William observed all the situation of his people. Ireland’s king used to say “Scotland..! My land”.
After a long time, when William came back to his village, he closed his eyes and took a deep breath. The love of his land was still in him. When he entered to the village there was a marriage function. People were busy in their customs and traditions. William also joined them. He saw his beloved Moorone, with her he was in deep love since childhood. She was also young and a very beautiful girl. They look at each other and smiled. He met with his old and childhood friend there. Then during the function, the English soldiers came. They all feared and stood aside. The king was also with them. The king directed them and told them that being the king of England he is taking the bride for tonight. The groom became angry. He started fighting but the English soldiers grasp him and beat him. William was standing aside and was watching the whole situations. They took the bride with them. William was thinking about his beloved that one day this can also happen to him. One of the soldier was looking at Moorone very viciously.
Few days later William took his beloved to the fields. They were deeply in love each other. As the Scottish people were not allowed to do anything and they were completely ignored, William and Moorone married secretly. William was aware that if they married openly, king will take Moorone to his bed for the first night.
One day English soldiers came and started raping Moorone. William could not bear this situation and he started fighting with them. He released Moorone from the Englishmen. He sat her on horseback and told her to meet him in the grove. He fought for some time with them and then ran away towards the grove. When he reached there he saw that Moorone was not in the grove. Englishmen had fetched her. When William came back to his village, he came to know that English king had slaughtered Moorone because she has violated the law and had fought with soldiers. William made a plan. He came near to the English soldiers as he will present himself before them. But as they grasp the rope of William’s horse, he started fight with them. He killed one of them. When the other villagers saw William, they also became passionate and started fighting. They killed all of them except king. Then William took the king, stood him in front of him, looked at him with a deep hatred and then slaughtered him and took the revenge of Moorone.
From that day the Scottish started fighting for their freedom. William infused courage in them that they also have the same rights as the English have. Where ever they found the English soldiers they killed them. Then there was a big fight between Scotland and England. The Scottish loss their properties, sons, daughters and lives but they never stopped their struggle for freedom. One day when William along with his army went there and took the English in his custody, he told them that inform the whole England that Scottish sons and daughters are no more their, Scotland is free. Then there took place another big fight and Scotland bear again a huge loss but they never lost their courage and passion. There was only one thing in their minds “Freedom”.
Ireland accompanied England and cheated William. They invited him and then they fetched him there and then gave William to England. The English soldiers did with him what they want. They told William to leave the struggle for freedom and then they will leave him alive. He was under the pinch of arrow. He was aware that they will kill him if he did not become agree with them but he was steadfast on his decision and belief that one day Scotland will get freedom. He was a hope for all the Scottish people. He was in love with the people of his race more than himself. He never lost his courage. He did not fear of any hurdle come in his way. Instead of demanding pardon or to become agree with them he uttered and cried only one word “Freedom”. The English people also became very surprise that in the last moment of his life he did not care about his own self but of his nation

Depiction of class conflict in Mohsin Hamid’s How to Get Filthy Rich in Rising Asia; A Marxist Study

Class is the group of people at the same social and economic levels. Class conflict is the dissension of these groups in the society into different categories on the basis of cast, creed, income, wealth, property, political and social status. The main cause of the class conflict is the unequal distribution of income and wealth among different classes in the society. Due to class conflict individuals of the society have imbalance and unequal excess to the different social opportunities and rewards in the society. It is unpreventable reality and serious issues that in the modern world and modern time an individual in the society cannot able to live beyond these norms and condition of the society. They are still livening their lives under the different status and position which assigned to them according to their status and position by the society. The common man can’t make it worth for him to live the life of completed with all the rights that obliged on society govern. In different societies a man has different position according to their cast, estate and socials values. Value makes a person boastful because he has the right to weaken the rights of others.
The powerful people can nip the weaker one because of the class conflict in the society. The behavior of society changes when the conservatives become newly rich. The newly rich made class conflict because their acts are not in the favor of socialist reforms, so, they are urinating the society and dragging it into class conflict. The rightful place doesn’t rectify the wrongs and it is the dilemma of merited class difference. The society is divided into so many divisions, caste and creed that it is very complex to understand the bewilder reality of class conflict in modern era.
In Britain, feudal societies arise by maintaining three classes in the medieval time. The classes were the aristocracy (the establishment class), the church (religious class) and commoners (Elite class) respectively. The French society before the French revolution divided in two different classes in the same way. The classes were the clergy class (church), the noble class (kings), and the lower class (the peasants) respectively. In such division of classes in the society peasants have lower social status. Upper classes exploit their rights and they no right to breathe, no right to resolve, no right to repair and no lawful environment. This type of class conflict still is found in the societies who are derived from the aristocracy system.
One of the best examples of class conflict according to cast is the division of classes in traditional Indian society where members of the Hindu society are split up into four categories which are the Brahmens, the Kshatriya, the Vaishyas and the Shudras. In these traditional societies, the poor and the lower class people are called untouchable and are given no status at all, no matter how they are able. The lower classes become slaves as they born slaves for the sake of rich ones serve them but with no service. Rules and regulations in the society are only for poor ones. They earned and deserve nothing. The fair and unfair riotous rules are for rich ones in this society and they are rollicking and brawling the weak class. On the other hand despite their lack of ability, the upper class have enjoy every type of fruit of the society and get better position and opportunities due to their high status. Because they have to remold and tweak their differences with the weak deserve class people. They have swapped their class because of their resources fair or unfair by hook or by crook. They commuted and rotated their positions well in the socialist society. Owing to this they left their dejected fellows class the poor. In such type of class conflict people get their status because of their birth but because of their individual talent or their training. They have no liberty of legitimacy and they denied the fitting proper rights of lower class. As a result of Society is fell prey in bad evil discrimination that creates hell of mortality of Society. The same way in the Indian society the cast is more important than abilities and talent. The general use of rights makes a Society in order. But in this criterion it is unbalance of training and physical culture and it become cumbersome and ingenuity.
Third type of class conflict is social class system. According to Peter Trugill a class is the cluster of those people who share common social and economic characteristics.” The delays of execrable rights also effect on class discrimination. It intensifies and worsens the argument of class depravity. And it is an expatriate situation for the modern social economic society. It provokes hunger neatens and irk of humans.
The classification of social class system is the division of society into different strata on the basis of income, cast, creed, wealth and religion. The society assign them different social status on the basis their position the society. For example, the class system in Great Britain is divided on the basis of wealth and income of the individuals. From their income their position can be judge that whether he belongs to upper class, middle class or lower class. As like in United States of America the classification of society is on the basis of the socio economic condition of the members of the society. The status has been given to the members of the society in the African states on the basis of their physical strength and leadership qualities in the society.
Class Conflicts creates anxiety to common man which leads to the curse swirl evil producing facts. It is alluring the causes the facts are arousing the situation of poverty. The poor is getting poorer and richer are getting richest day by day. This is an expletive obscenity to the malediction of Society.

1.1 Karl Marx theory of Class Conflict
Karl Marx, a revolutionary economist and sociologist who change the direction of the social class system in the 19th century. He was not only a philosopher but also socio-economic theorist and founder of Marxism. The sociologist, economist and journalist Karl Marx is one the most distinguished philosopher and thinker of the 19th century.
Karl Marx viewed class conflict in the society as a negative force that divides the society into various social class divisions. Karl Marx divided the society into different classes and the principle social classes were the proletariat (the wage workers) with the bourgeoisie (the capitalists) and the petty Bourgeoisie (middle class people). Marxism states that social division and social change occurs in the society because of the struggle between various classes in the society. In one of his influential book he writes that the history of class conflict and class struggle is as old as the history of the human existing society. He believes that people who belongs to same class division in the society have share same lifestyle, same beliefs and have same mentality. In other hand in the societies which is divided on the basis of wealth have experience the exploitation of lower and working classes by the upper and dominant classes. Such as in capitalism where the upper class always exploits the rights of lower working class. This exploitation leads to and it creates conflicting between the classes in the society.

1.2 Types
On the basis of status given by the society to its members into different classes, the social class system in the society has two types, one is an open class system and other is close class system.

1.2.1 Open class system.
In open class system every individual of the society have equal opportunities and chances to improve their social economic conditions. In this type of system every member of society can have access to all opportunities and resources and can improve their condition. In this type of system the position of the individual is a dynamic one. The people in this system can change their position and can achieve the status of different classes through hard work and struggle. The member of the society can make their position better if they do hard work. Peter Trudgill calls this type of system is “social mobility; movement up and down the social ladder”.

1.2.2 Close class system
In this type of system members is not allow to change their position and status. The society gives them a permanent place and status on the basis of their gender, their age, and their relation with other people, their cast and creed. The individual cannot change their status and position. The example of open class system is the conflict in different social classes due to social change and class conflict due to cast stratification is the example of closed system. The variations of this system are different in different societies. It is impossible that the system of one society has a complete close and other society is a complete open class system.

1.3 Class conflict and English literature
Literature is the best criticism of life and it is the study of society. Literature is a direct reflection of life and it reflects what is happening in the society. It portrays the real picture of changes occurring in the society in different ways. These changes may be the social, political, religious and scientific changes. Literature also illustrates the moral and legal norms, culture and civilizations, ideas and beliefs of the society. Literature takes its themes from the very changes occurring in the society and from which it come out. Society is depicting though the different genres of literature such, as poetry, drama, novel etc. so Literature is a mirror of society because it portrays the real image of society. Every writer has a little influence of society in which he has bought up. A literary writer has very close relation with his society and very attuned to the changes and they take innovation from their own society and transfer their imagination, observation, revelation, affections and perception into their text. Thus literature and society are interlinked and writers both consciously and unconsciously assimilate the very important link in their texts.

1.3.1 The Genre Novel and Class conflict
Novel is the important genre of English art and literature which is the main medium for depicting and illustrating the issue of class conflict. In English literature this genre has appear in the beginning of 18th century with the birth of middle class in the society. In the eighteen century a new class was emerged because of industrialization and economic growth in the Europe. The new class was middle class and the novel was being written to get acclaimed from this new class or middle class. Novelist like Daniel Defoe’s Moll Flanders, Samuel Richardson, and Henry Fielding introduce the theme of Class conflict in the novel from the very beginning.
Different thinkers and writers from the all over the globe have written about the class conflict and class consciousness. They have depicted these themes in their literary works in many ways. All time great novel Great expectation by Charles Dickens, a journey of a poor man in Joseph Andrews by Henry Fielding, class and family conflict in Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, a great drama about poor man that is a Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, Graham Green best drama about class consciousness is The Tenth Man, Mr. Blenny by Philip Larkin, the feminist point of view about conflict of classes in The Doll’s House by Katherine Mansfield, the Necklace by Guy de Maupassant are some works and their writers which show the theme of class conflict in the existing society. In all of these works the writers show through their themes, settings and through their lives of characters and their attitude towards each other and their aspirations. Mohsin Hamid

Mohsin Hamid is a Pakistani wordsmith, penman and dramaturge. His playwright and work is known as very famous and splendid by all. He was integrated to Pakistan State and has affiliation with the city Lahore in 19″s century. He has commencement in Law from the School of Haward in 1997. He wrote many magnificent famously novels such as Moth Smoke, The reluctant fundamentalist and How to get Filthy Rich In Rising Asia. These novels are sumptuous and resplendent subjects in its self. The reader find them very dandy and swelling because of its imposing plots. His endearing engaging and victorious novels were best in its self and recognized by the big stature publishing houses. It has many versions and has converted into many discourses. His essays speech writings and talking has emerged and materialized in New York Times, The Guardian and the New Yorker. How to get Filthy rich is a noticeably apparent caused book which was broadcasted and promulgated by the Tiziano Terzani Internationally Literary prize. Then it was under name for the Dsc prize for South Asian literature, Welt International Literature Award and the least one in KLF Embassy for the very first France prize circulate. His complete work was full of astute boldness very vivid and luminously coruscating. BACKGROUND
Mohsin Hamid has written three novels. All the novels are set in subcontinent and the main theme of these novels are class conflict, class consciousness and conflict of system that is religious pride and prejudice, social and moral values. The third novel of Mohsin Hamid is How to get Filthy Rich in Rising Asia. It is the bird’s eye view novel of for all mankind. The main aspect and lookout of novel is very eye opener for reader. The writer has used a standpoint and uses a second person perspective and presenting the hero as a ‘you’. The story of novel has vast appearance of interpreting and a broad view on those countries which have the division of classes is the cause of the conflict. The writer’s view is straightforward for Asian countries that how the poverty made the lower class bitter to swallowing in this world. The writer portrays a real gloomy picture of a poor struggling man, who born poor, grown poor, and died poor in a city of somewhere in the Asia. It is story of unnamed hero and his struggle for money and for status as he headway to the city and starts a small business. It could be any city in Asia, Mumbai, Delhi, Lahore or maybe it is Karachi. It does not matter but the deep language is deep and effective and engages the reader till the end. This novel shows that class conflict is for sure a curse for all countries and it is very difficult for a poor man to achieve a high status in the elite class dominating society.
“How to Get Filthy Rich in Rising Asia” is compelling story of a society in which poor become poorest and rich become richest. Mohsin Hamid narrates the critical situation of the lower class which is dejected by society. The political and social trials made the fate of poor a setback of misfortune. They have no pure water to drink, no health safety and no food to eat. Poor drainage system unpaved streets as well as their bad and hard lucks. In this novel Mohsin Hamid shows that a man can be filthy rich by moral decay, by putrefaction and by wickedness. It shows that money is the only thing in the society which makes the status of a man. If you have money you can do everything in the society by every mean. You have respect and status in the society because of money. If you have money you can go everywhere. No wall comes into your way. But if you have not any money you have to faces a lot hurdles, a lot of situation and a lot of problems. You have small house to live, a little food to eat, no school to go, no medicine for cure and your life is totally depends on elite class. This is what Mohsin Hamid show in the novel. Mohsin Hamid exposes in this novel different pictures that portray class conflict and class division in the Pakistani society. Lahore is the born city of Mohsin Hamid and he writes about the contemporary society and reflects the true illustration of the society. How to Get Filthy Rich in Rising Asia is a true representative of new realities of South Asia such as politics, Corruption, broken hearts, failed marriages, perennial war edge and lifestyle pressures on fast street of the society. It is an account of modern life in the develop world, economic growth, marked the tension generated by industrialization and urbanization, social mobility, poverty and inequality. There is no name use in the novel so it lends the book its universal character.