FATHER OF SOCIOLOGY AUGUSTE COMTE

AUGUSTE COMTE
(1798-1857)

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INTRODUCTION:

  • French Sociologist
  • A Moralist
  • Father of Sociology
  • Established the relationship of Sociology with other fields of knowledge
  • HIS WORKS
  • The description of the scientific works required for the reorganization of the society
  • Positive Philosophy
  • System of positive politics
  • CONTRIBUTIONS OF COMTE
  • STAGES IN THE SOCIAL ORGANISATION AND PROGRESS
  • Three stages in the growth of Social organisation
  • Theological thinking is associated to the military or monarchical social organisation
  • God would be there as the supreme of the hierarchy as King of Kings and as mighty warriors
  • spiritual deterrent could hardly be challenged
  • entrenchment would overcome and its challengers would be punished
  • Metaphysical stage produced a government controlled by “DOCTRINES OF ABSTRACT RIGHTS
  • A legalistic Social institution
  • More official and structured society
  • In Europe Nation States came out during this stage
  • Third stage Positive thinking made a society controlled by industrialists
  • An Industrial society in which men inquire into the nature and utilisation of natural assets and forces
  • Transformation of the material assets on earth for human benefit
  • Mass Production of material inventions
    • LAW OF THREE STAGES:
    • Law of three stages of Human Thought (Law of Human Progress)
    • THE THEOLOGICAL STAGE
    • primal persons tend to think in Supernatural terms
    • All phenomenon are made by instant action of supernatural beings
    • No priesthood because the gods were individuals occupying in firm objects
    • Too many fetishes (Any object or idea obtaining unquestioning reverence or response, respect or devotion) produced much confusion
    • Fetishism was turned into polytheism, hence developed the concept of priesthood in the societies
    • rational contradictions led to the arrangement of gods in an hierarchical manner
    • Concept of monotheism
    • THE METAPHYSICAL STAGE:

    –Rationalization replaced imagination or creative power

    –God does not stand directly at the back of every phenomenon

    –Reasoning aided man to find some other order in the natural world

    –Principles and theories got domination over feelings and speculations

    –Scientific way of thinking and reasoning

    –A positive state

    –Origin and destination of the universe and the causes of occurrence and study of their laws

    –Observation and classification of the occurrence

    –Positive thinking suits the need of the industrial society

  • THE POSITIVE OR SCIENTIFIC STAGE:
    • COMTE’S CLASSIFICATION OF SCIENCES
    • Classified sciences according to growing complexity, independence and reducing generality
    • Any branch of knowledge reaches the positive stage early depending upon its simplicity and generality
    • Considered Mathematics as the basic tool of the mind
    • It is not a member of the group of sciences, it is their common basis
    • Education without mathematics is faulty, inexact and unreliable
    • Astronomy the most general and simple of all natural science developed first
    • Followed by other sciences such as Physics, Chemistry, Biology and finally Sociology
    • Social sciences are most complex and most dependent upon other sciences for their development
    • Hence they occupy the highest place in hierarchy
    • He further classified the sciences in Inorganic and Organic Sciences. Inorganic sciences (Physics, Astronomy and Chemistry) are easy to develop
    • Organic Sciences such as Biology are more complex. “It involves study of all life and the general laws pertaining to the individual units of life”
    • COMTE’s VIEWS ON SOCIOLGY
    • Sociology represents the culmination of the development of Science. It is based upon Mathematics and is dependent upon Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy. These Sciences have taken time to free from theological and metaphysical speculations and thinking. Hence Comte argued that Sociology too would require some time to attain the full status of Sciencencomms9960-f4
    • SOCIAL STATIC AND SOCIAL DYNAMIC
    • According to Comte there are two divisions in Sociology
    • SOCIAL STATIC:
    • It refers to the “Study of the Laws of action and reaction in the Social Order”. It deals with the major Institutions of the society such as family, religion, economic etc.
    • It inquires into the co existence of the social phenomenon
    • There is a spontaneous harmony between the whole and a part of the social system
    • The parts of the society cannot be studied separately
    • When the harmony between the parts is lacking a pathological situation may prevail
      • SOCIAL DYNAMIC:

      –If static inspects how the parts of the society are interrelated social dynamic focus on whole societies as the unit of study and reveals how they developed and changed through time

      –It inquires as to how human civilisations advances in different stages

      –Comte was convinced that all societies move through certain fixed stages of development and that they advances towards ever increasing perfect.

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A BRIEF HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE

English literature is a very old and waste literature. A brief history of English literature is given below…..

History of English literature is divided into following period
1}Old or Anglo Saxon literature
2}Middle English literature
3}Elizabethan literature
4}The age of Milton
5}Restoration drama
6}Neoclassicism
7}Romanticism
8}The Victorian period
9}The twentieth century (modern)
10}Post modernism (present)


They are further discussed as below ….

1. Old English literature:

Old English literature was written from about 600-1100, The greatest old English poem called ‘Beowulf ‘ whose author is unknown.

The old English authors, are known by name are Cadmon,the author of a short hymn,and Cynewulf’ the author of four long poems

2.Middle English literature:(1100-1500)
It started in 1100
Poetry: the most important poet of the time is Geoffrey Chaucer, his greatest work is Canterbury tales.

Drama: The three main types of medieval drama are mystery plays,about Bible stories,miracle plays about the lives of saints and the miracles the performed and morality plays,in which character s personify moral qualities such as charity or vice.

3.Elizabethan literature:

Written approximately during the time of queen Elizabeth (1558-1603). Thats why it is called Elizabethan literature.

Poetry:

Edmund Spencer the author of The Faerie Queen’s, Walter Raleigh,and William Shakespeare.

Drama:

Drama is the greatest form written during the Elizabethan age.Shakespeare is considered the greatest playwright of all times ,his best works include Hamlet, king Lear,Macbeth Othello and merchant of vinice, Marlow six plays. Ben Johnson alchemist John donne 1572 -1631 metaphysical school of poetry

4. The age of Milton

Milton’s paradise lost,
Robert Herrick famous for beautiful lyrics.

5.Restoration Drama

The main form of drama of this period are the heroic plays as written by john Dryden,and the comedy of manners as written by Richard sheriden and William Congreve.
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6.Neoclasseicsm:

The main characteristics of neoclassicism are;

1) Poetry should be guided by reason
2) The role of the poet is that of the teacher
3) Poetry should be written according to fixed rules.
4) Poetry should use special diction
The major representative of this school
Are john Dryden and Alexander pope.

7. Romanticism

The main characteristics of Romanticism are

1) Poetry is the expression of personal feelings and emotions.
2) Imagination is a main source of poetry
3) Nature in romantic poetry is a living thing,a teacher of man,and a healing power Wordsworth’ Keats, Byron, Shelley and Coleridge

8. The Victorian period.

This period includes second half of the nineteenth century.
Poetry. Alfred tennyson and Robert Browning are the major poets of this period.
(Novel) the novel was the main literary production of the Victorian age
Charles Dickens, Jane Austen,Emily Bronte,George Eliot,Thomas hardy.
(Drama)
Oscar wild’ s importance of being Earnest.

9.(20th century)
(Also known as moderen period)
As a result of the political changes and the world wars,the sense of confidence in Victorian literature is replaced by the loss of faith,suffering, and uncertainty that modern literature expresses.stylistic experimentation and revolution against all literary tradition are the mark of modern literature. Some major figures include w.b Yeats, T.S. Eliot and W.H Auden in poetry,
Virginia wolf and James Joyce in the novel, and Samuel Becket in drama.

10.(Post Modernism (C.1945-present)
( The present literature English literature)
A notoriously ambiguous term,specially as it refers to literature, post modernism can b seen as response to the elitism of high modernism as well as to the horrors of world war ll .post modern literature is characterized by a disjointed,fragmented pasticcio of high and low culture that reflects the absence of tradition and structure in a world driven by technology and consumerism,
Julian Barnes,don’t delillo,tony Morrison,Vladimir nobokov,Thomas Pynchon and Kurt Vonnegut are modern writers of this era …….

LITERATURE AND CLASS CONFLICTS

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Literature is the best criticism of life and it is the study of society. Literature is a direct reflection of life and it reflects what is happening in the society. It portrays the real picture of changes occurring in the society in different ways. These changes may be the social, political religious and scientific changes. Literature also illustrates the moral and legal norms, culture and civilizations, ideas and beliefs of the society. Literature takes its themes from the very changes occurring in the society and from which it come out. Society is depicting though the different genres of literature such, as poetry, drama, novel etc. so Literature is a mirror of society because it portrays the real image of society. Every writer has a little influence of society in which he has bought up. A literary writer has very close relation with his society and very attuned to the changes and they take innovation from their own society and transfer their imagination, observation, revelation, affections and perception into their text. Thus literature and society are interlinked and writers both consciously and unconsciously assimilate the very important link in their texts.

2.3.1 Karl Marx Criticism
By literary theory, Karl Marx has also contributed to the literature. According to Karl Marx the work which is written by different writers is not due to by some godly or mythical revelation rather these writers get persuaded by their instantaneous surrounding which is the current composition and prevailing economic system of the society, social order of the classes, moral and legal norms of the individuals and from the government institutions in society.
Marxist criticism on literature is not simply a theory or piece of literature. It is also not concerned with literary text which is related to the lower class. The main objective of this theory is to explain the work of art and literature more thoroughly and more perfectly with fully attention to its form and style. But from those style and form it would suggest that it is a product and representation of society.
Literary Conflict

2.3.2 Novel
Novel is the important genre of English art and literature which is the main medium for depicting and illustrating the issue of class conflict. In English literature this genre has appear in the beginning of 18th century with the birth of middle class in the society. In the eighteen century a new class was emerged because of industrialization and economic growth in the Europe. The new class was middle class and the novel was being written to get acclaimed from this new class or middle class. In fact it portrays and describes the entire society. Various scholars and writers deal with these experiences of life in their own way.
The Oxford Dictionary defines novel as “a fictions prose narrative of book length, typically representing character and action with some degree of realism.” The Literary J.A Cuddon states that Novel is not only a common attribute but it also possesses many other characteristics and most important distinguished characteristic is its illustration of actual life circumstances and immediate society. Through different characters, different settings, and various themes it is a best medium to illustrate the contemporary society.
Since its beginning in eighteenth century, Class conflict on the basis of status, power, economic incongruity and many others factors is being shown in the novel. The novel seem to be a real depiction of the society by showing the significance of financial and social status in a community and socio- economic condition and the changing position of the characters from one to another status. Due to this illustration of the society, a novel can be easily understood with respect to the relation with immediate environment, the financial and social status, the socio-economic conditions, the current and influential ideas and beliefs, and the moral and legal norms
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