Class is the group of people at the same social and economic levels. Class conflict is the dissension of these groups in the society into different categories on the basis of cast, creed, income, wealth, property, political and social status. The main cause of the class conflict is the unequal distribution of income and wealth among different classes in the society. Due to class conflict individuals of the society have imbalance and unequal excess to the different social opportunities and rewards in the society. It is unpreventable reality and serious issues that in the modern world and modern time an individual in the society cannot able to live beyond these norms and condition of the society. They are still livening their lives under the different status and position which assigned to them according to their status and position by the society. The common man can’t make it worth for him to live the life of completed with all the rights that obliged on society govern. In different societies a man has different position according to their cast, estate and socials values. Value makes a person boastful because he has the right to weaken the rights of others.
The powerful people can nip the weaker one because of the class conflict in the society. The behavior of society changes when the conservatives become newly rich. The newly rich made class conflict because their acts are not in the favor of socialist reforms, so, they are urinating the society and dragging it into class conflict. The rightful place doesn’t rectify the wrongs and it is the dilemma of merited class difference. The society is divided into so many divisions, caste and creed that it is very complex to understand the bewilder reality of class conflict in modern era.
In Britain, feudal societies arise by maintaining three classes in the medieval time. The classes were the aristocracy (the establishment class), the church (religious class) and commoners (Elite class) respectively. The French society before the French revolution divided in two different classes in the same way. The classes were the clergy class (church), the noble class (kings), and the lower class (the peasants) respectively. In such division of classes in the society peasants have lower social status. Upper classes exploit their rights and they no right to breathe, no right to resolve, no right to repair and no lawful environment. This type of class conflict still is found in the societies who are derived from the aristocracy system.
One of the best examples of class conflict according to cast is the division of classes in traditional Indian society where members of the Hindu society are split up into four categories which are the Brahmens, the Kshatriya, the Vaishyas and the Shudras. In these traditional societies, the poor and the lower class people are called untouchable and are given no status at all, no matter how they are able. The lower classes become slaves as they born slaves for the sake of rich ones serve them but with no service. Rules and regulations in the society are only for poor ones. They earned and deserve nothing. The fair and unfair riotous rules are for rich ones in this society and they are rollicking and brawling the weak class. On the other hand despite their lack of ability, the upper class have enjoy every type of fruit of the society and get better position and opportunities due to their high status. Because they have to remold and tweak their differences with the weak deserve class people. They have swapped their class because of their resources fair or unfair by hook or by crook. They commuted and rotated their positions well in the socialist society. Owing to this they left their dejected fellows class the poor. In such type of class conflict people get their status because of their birth but because of their individual talent or their training. They have no liberty of legitimacy and they denied the fitting proper rights of lower class. As a result of Society is fell prey in bad evil discrimination that creates hell of mortality of Society. The same way in the Indian society the cast is more important than abilities and talent. The general use of rights makes a Society in order. But in this criterion it is unbalance of training and physical culture and it become cumbersome and ingenuity.
Third type of class conflict is social class system. According to Peter Trugill a class is the cluster of those people who share common social and economic characteristics.” The delays of execrable rights also effect on class discrimination. It intensifies and worsens the argument of class depravity. And it is an expatriate situation for the modern social economic society. It provokes hunger neatens and irk of humans.
The classification of social class system is the division of society into different strata on the basis of income, cast, creed, wealth and religion. The society assign them different social status on the basis their position the society. For example, the class system in Great Britain is divided on the basis of wealth and income of the individuals. From their income their position can be judge that whether he belongs to upper class, middle class or lower class. As like in United States of America the classification of society is on the basis of the socio economic condition of the members of the society. The status has been given to the members of the society in the African states on the basis of their physical strength and leadership qualities in the society.
Class Conflicts creates anxiety to common man which leads to the curse swirl evil producing facts. It is alluring the causes the facts are arousing the situation of poverty. The poor is getting poorer and richer are getting richest day by day. This is an expletive obscenity to the malediction of Society.
1.1 Karl Marx theory of Class Conflict
Karl Marx, a revolutionary economist and sociologist who change the direction of the social class system in the 19th century. He was not only a philosopher but also socio-economic theorist and founder of Marxism. The sociologist, economist and journalist Karl Marx is one the most distinguished philosopher and thinker of the 19th century.
Karl Marx viewed class conflict in the society as a negative force that divides the society into various social class divisions. Karl Marx divided the society into different classes and the principle social classes were the proletariat (the wage workers) with the bourgeoisie (the capitalists) and the petty Bourgeoisie (middle class people). Marxism states that social division and social change occurs in the society because of the struggle between various classes in the society. In one of his influential book he writes that the history of class conflict and class struggle is as old as the history of the human existing society. He believes that people who belongs to same class division in the society have share same lifestyle, same beliefs and have same mentality. In other hand in the societies which is divided on the basis of wealth have experience the exploitation of lower and working classes by the upper and dominant classes. Such as in capitalism where the upper class always exploits the rights of lower working class. This exploitation leads to and it creates conflicting between the classes in the society.
On the basis of status given by the society to its members into different classes, the social class system in the society has two types, one is an open class system and other is close class system.
1.2.1 Open class system.
In open class system every individual of the society have equal opportunities and chances to improve their social economic conditions. In this type of system every member of society can have access to all opportunities and resources and can improve their condition. In this type of system the position of the individual is a dynamic one. The people in this system can change their position and can achieve the status of different classes through hard work and struggle. The member of the society can make their position better if they do hard work. Peter Trudgill calls this type of system is “social mobility; movement up and down the social ladder”.
1.2.2 Close class system
In this type of system members is not allow to change their position and status. The society gives them a permanent place and status on the basis of their gender, their age, and their relation with other people, their cast and creed. The individual cannot change their status and position. The example of open class system is the conflict in different social classes due to social change and class conflict due to cast stratification is the example of closed system. The variations of this system are different in different societies. It is impossible that the system of one society has a complete close and other society is a complete open class system.
1.3 Class conflict and English literature
Literature is the best criticism of life and it is the study of society. Literature is a direct reflection of life and it reflects what is happening in the society. It portrays the real picture of changes occurring in the society in different ways. These changes may be the social, political, religious and scientific changes. Literature also illustrates the moral and legal norms, culture and civilizations, ideas and beliefs of the society. Literature takes its themes from the very changes occurring in the society and from which it come out. Society is depicting though the different genres of literature such, as poetry, drama, novel etc. so Literature is a mirror of society because it portrays the real image of society. Every writer has a little influence of society in which he has bought up. A literary writer has very close relation with his society and very attuned to the changes and they take innovation from their own society and transfer their imagination, observation, revelation, affections and perception into their text. Thus literature and society are interlinked and writers both consciously and unconsciously assimilate the very important link in their texts.
1.3.1 The Genre Novel and Class conflict
Novel is the important genre of English art and literature which is the main medium for depicting and illustrating the issue of class conflict. In English literature this genre has appear in the beginning of 18th century with the birth of middle class in the society. In the eighteen century a new class was emerged because of industrialization and economic growth in the Europe. The new class was middle class and the novel was being written to get acclaimed from this new class or middle class. Novelist like Daniel Defoe’s Moll Flanders, Samuel Richardson, and Henry Fielding introduce the theme of Class conflict in the novel from the very beginning.
Different thinkers and writers from the all over the globe have written about the class conflict and class consciousness. They have depicted these themes in their literary works in many ways. All time great novel Great expectation by Charles Dickens, a journey of a poor man in Joseph Andrews by Henry Fielding, class and family conflict in Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, a great drama about poor man that is a Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, Graham Green best drama about class consciousness is The Tenth Man, Mr. Blenny by Philip Larkin, the feminist point of view about conflict of classes in The Doll’s House by Katherine Mansfield, the Necklace by Guy de Maupassant are some works and their writers which show the theme of class conflict in the existing society. In all of these works the writers show through their themes, settings and through their lives of characters and their attitude towards each other and their aspirations.
220.127.116.11 Mohsin Hamid
Mohsin Hamid is a Pakistani wordsmith, penman and dramaturge. His playwright and work is known as very famous and splendid by all. He was integrated to Pakistan State and has affiliation with the city Lahore in 19″s century. He has commencement in Law from the School of Haward in 1997. He wrote many magnificent famously novels such as Moth Smoke, The reluctant fundamentalist and How to get Filthy Rich In Rising Asia. These novels are sumptuous and resplendent subjects in its self. The reader find them very dandy and swelling because of its imposing plots. His endearing engaging and victorious novels were best in its self and recognized by the big stature publishing houses. It has many versions and has converted into many discourses. His essays speech writings and talking has emerged and materialized in New York Times, The Guardian and the New Yorker. How to get Filthy rich is a noticeably apparent caused book which was broadcasted and promulgated by the Tiziano Terzani Internationally Literary prize. Then it was under name for the Dsc prize for South Asian literature, Welt International Literature Award and the least one in KLF Embassy for the very first France prize circulate. His complete work was full of astute boldness very vivid and luminously coruscating.
Mohsin Hamid has written three novels. All the novels are set in subcontinent and the main theme of these novels are class conflict, class consciousness and conflict of system that is religious pride and prejudice, social and moral values. The third novel of Mohsin Hamid is How to get Filthy Rich in Rising Asia. It is the bird’s eye view novel of for all mankind. The main aspect and lookout of novel is very eye opener for reader. The writer has used a standpoint and uses a second person perspective and presenting the hero as a ‘you’. The story of novel has vast appearance of interpreting and a broad view on those countries which have the division of classes is the cause of the conflict. The writer’s view is straightforward for Asian countries that how the poverty made the lower class bitter to swallowing in this world. The writer portrays a real gloomy picture of a poor struggling man, who born poor, grown poor, and died poor in a city of somewhere in the Asia. It is story of unnamed hero and his struggle for money and for status as he headway to the city and starts a small business. It could be any city in Asia, Mumbai, Delhi, Lahore or maybe it is Karachi. It does not matter but the deep language is deep and effective and engages the reader till the end. This novel shows that class conflict is for sure a curse for all countries and it is very difficult for a poor man to achieve a high status in the elite class dominating society.
“How to Get Filthy Rich in Rising Asia” is compelling story of a society in which poor become poorest and rich become richest. Mohsin Hamid narrates the critical situation of the lower class which is dejected by society. The political and social trials made the fate of poor a setback of misfortune. They have no pure water to drink, no health safety and no food to eat. Poor drainage system unpaved streets as well as their bad and hard lucks. In this novel Mohsin Hamid shows that a man can be filthy rich by moral decay, by putrefaction and by wickedness. It shows that money is the only thing in the society which makes the status of a man. If you have money you can do everything in the society by every mean. You have respect and status in the society because of money. If you have money you can go everywhere. No wall comes into your way. But if you have not any money you have to faces a lot hurdles, a lot of situation and a lot of problems. You have small house to live, a little food to eat, no school to go, no medicine for cure and your life is totally depends on elite class. This is what Mohsin Hamid show in the novel. Mohsin Hamid exposes in this novel different pictures that portray class conflict and class division in the Pakistani society. Lahore is the born city of Mohsin Hamid and he writes about the contemporary society and reflects the true illustration of the society. How to Get Filthy Rich in Rising Asia is a true representative of new realities of South Asia such as politics, Corruption, broken hearts, failed marriages, perennial war edge and lifestyle pressures on fast street of the society. It is an account of modern life in the develop world, economic growth, marked the tension generated by industrialization and urbanization, social mobility, poverty and inequality. There is no name use in the novel so it lends the book its universal character.